800 species in 40 genera are chiefly found in north temperate regions, a few in tropical, arctic and southern regions. The fruits of some species possess hooks.
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Mechanical injury can occur from ingestion of the hard, trigonous, pointed fruits (Long 1924). The plant was not irritant by patch test in one patient (Möslein 1963).
150 species are found in tropical and subtropical America.
The wood is said to be capable of producing dermatitis (Orsler 1973).
Twenty workmen in Strasbourg were said to have irritation of the eyes and nose after working with coccoloba in 1904. As investigations into the cause were unsuccessful, nothing was published at the time but Czimatis and Hagemann (1910) refer to the incident. Hausen (1970) who elucidated this, noted that he had heard of irritation by the wood in Guadeloupe but found no case-reports. He found several alkaloids in the wood. According to Woods and Calnan (1976) the strong sensitiser cocobolo was not finally identified as Dalbergia spp. till 1918, and was long confused with similarly named woods such as Coccoloba, Cocos and cocus (Wiesner 1903). Cocobolo seems the likeliest cause of the Strasbourg outbreak, as Coccoloba has never been much exported (Boulger 1908, Record and Hess 1943).
Two species are found in the Mediterranean region, southern Africa and Australia.
The hard fruit bear three rigid spreading spines which can cause injuries to humans and livestock (Aplin 1976).
[Information available but not yet included in database]
Fifteen species are found in temperate Eurasia.
This species is widely cultivated especially in North America. The plant is used for green fodder and provides good honey. The seeds are used to make flour.
All parts of the plant, whether fresh or dry, are capable of producing photosensitisation if ingested, the fresh plant in the flowering stage being most toxic. Animals that are stabled do not develop symptoms of photosensitisation when fed on buckwheat. On exposure to sunlight there is inflammatory swelling (dermatitis erythematosa) of the ears, face, and eyelids accompanied by severe itching. In severe cases, vesicles appear. In very severe cases, the vesicular stage may develop into a necrotic dermatitis. Symptoms of photosensitisation may appear in less than 20 hours after commencement of feeding. The disease is known as fagopyrism (Steyn 1934). Pigments with an absorption band at about 590 nm are responsible for photosensitisation (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962, Kingsbury 1964). Fagopyrin and related fluorescent chemicals are related to those of Hypericum (Bigger 1959). Photosensitivity has been reported to occur in humans who ingest buckwheat (Pammel 1911, Bruce 1927, Sheard et al. 1928, Steyn 1934, Mathews 1937, Muenscher 1951, Behl et al. 1966).
Buckwheat has been reported to cause contact irritation of the skin (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962, Muenscher 1951). It can also produce Type I hypersensitivity reactions (Blumstein 1935). According to Blumstein (1935) and Blum (1941) most, if not all, cases of buckwheat poisoning in man are not examples of photosensitisation but are allergic reactions. Hjorth (1968) recorded one positive patch test reaction to the plant and negative reactions in five cases.
Using the method of Daniels (1965), the seeds of F. esculentum, both with the husk on and dehusked, did not produce psoralen-type phototoxicity for Candida albicans (Mitchell JC 1972 — unpublished observation). Fagopyrism has also been attributed to ingestion of Polygonum (Mathews 1937).
Use of the straw as a head rest caused asthma and rhinitis (Matsumura et al. 1964).
30 species are found in tropical and southern Africa.
The three spined fruits stick to the feet when walking (Williamson 1955).
In a broad sense, 300 species are recognized, of cosmopolitan distribution but especially found in temperate regions. In a strict sense, 50 cosmopolitan species are recognized. Some are xerophytic.
The juice of the plant is acrid (White 1887) and irritant (Pammel 1911).
The plant is used to make a tea ("Weidermannscher tea" or" Homeriana tea") and contains tannic acid and a trace of volatile oil. The plant is used for topical application as an astringent and styptic and has been reported to cause contact dermatitis in horses and sheep due to the presence of an acid or "smarting" substance which may be salicic acid (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).
According to Muenscher (1951), contact with the plant has caused contact dermatitis in "susceptible" individuals. Gardner & Bennetts (1956) included this species in a list of plants known or suspected of causing dermatitis. The plant was not irritant by patch test in one patient (Möslein 1963). A gardener developed dermatitis of the opposing surfaces of the right forefinger and thumb and of the intervening finger web. Two days previously he had pulled P. aviculare which was a prevalent weed. He applied an ointment to his finger and thumb. Five months later, he developed dermatitis of the forearm and trunk. This dermatitis was attributed to a re-use of the ointment at these sites. The juice of the plant was considered to have contaminated the ointment. Patch tests were not recorded (Lloyd 1914).
Ingestion of the plant was said to produce dermatitis in animals (Gates 1930, Sampson and Malmsten 1935).
The juice of the plant is acrid. The root is astringent and the sap is applied to wounds as an "antiseptic" (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).
Stuart (1979) notes that the powdered rhizome acts as a styptic, and that preparations of the root have been used in folk medicine as external applications to cuts, sores, and haemorrhoids, these styptic and vulnerary properties being attributable to the astringent tannins present in the rhizome.
This perennial species, which has become popular in Danish gardens, caused a typical streaky plant dermatitis of the arms in a gardener. Patch test to the plant produced a strong vesicular reaction; one of ten controls also had a positive reaction (Hjorth and Mitchell 1973). Although patch tests to the leaves could produce an irritant reaction, the history and clinical findings left no doubt of an allergic contact dermatitis.
This species has irritant properties (Pammel 1911).
The plant was not irritant by patch test in one patient (Möslein 1963).
The plant irritates the hands and face of persons who collect it, producing burning and itching (White 1887). Some colloquial names for this plant indicate an awareness of its properties viz. biting persicaria, bity tongue, pepper plant, red knees (Grieve 1931). The acrid juice is irritant and the bruised leaves and the seeds, when employed as a poultice, blister the skin (Behl et al. 1966). Other authors (MacDougal 1894, Coulter 1904, Pammel 1911, Weber 1937, Muenscher 1951, Schwartz et al. 1957) who refer to the irritant properties of the plant for humans do not add any clinical details other than a note of irritation of the eyes and nostrils by the juice of the plant.
According to (Grieve 1931), a fomentation of the leaves is beneficial for chronic ulcers and haemorrhoids [the latter use probably accounting for the colloquial names smartass and arse-smart]. Grieve (1931) also records that smartweed was an old country remedy for curing proud flesh in the sores of animals; and that the bruised leaves were used as a poultice to whitlows.
Unfavourable effects from the plant have also been observed in animals. It is difficult to define whether contact dermatitis, dermatitis from ingestion or photosensitivity from ingestion actually occurred. Ingestion of the plant has been reported to produce a photosensitivity syndrome resembling fagopyrism in animals (Steyn 1934). In 1931, this species was present in pastures in New South Wales in which a number of cows developed dermatitis (Hurst 1942).
This plant and other species of Polygonum contain acrid smarting substances which may cause dermatitis in stock if ingested (Gates 1930). The juice is acrid, causing irritation and smarting, especially when in contact with the eyes and nostrils of animals and is possibly a cause of dermatitis (Long 1924).
This species is irritant (Pammel 1911).
Möslein (1963) observed positive patch test reactions to the whole plant, to the blossom and less strongly to the leaf and stem in one patient who had contact dermatitis. Negative patch tests to the blossom were observed in four controls. Negative patch tests were also observed to P. aviculare L., P. bistorta L., P. persicaria L., P. viviparum L. and to Bilderdykia convolvulus Dumort. (syn. P. convolvulus L.).
Ingestion of the plant is considered to cause dermatitis in cattle at some times (Hurst 1942).
This species is stated to be free from the "biting taste" characteristic of many species of Polygonum; it was suspected of causing dermatitis in a cow in New South Wales (Hurst 1942).
The plant has irritant properties (Pammel 1911). This species was considered on field evidence to have caused dermatitis of the udder and perineum of dairy cattle but on testing by external application to the skin of a steer and a calf, no observable ill effect was produced (Hurst 1942). White (1937) states that in Queensland, the loss of five young pigs was attributed to this plant and that the symptoms of poisoning were swelling of the ears, face and eyelids with considerable irritation of the affected parts. However, feeding experiments produced negative results (Hurst 1942).
The plant has a very acrid juice which can cause smarting and irritation especially when in contact with the eyes and nostrils of animals (Pammel 1911, Gates 1930). The plant was not irritant by patch test in one patient (Möslein 1963). The plant can produce dermatitis in "susceptible" individuals (Muenscher 1951 Schwartz et al. 1957). Ingestion of the plant has been reported to produce a photosensitivity syndrome resembling fagopyrism in animals (Steyn 1934, Mathews 1937).
The plant was suspected of causing necrotic dermatitis in animals in New South Wales (Hurst 1942). Gardner & Bennetts (1956) include this species in a list of plants known or suspected of causing dermatitis, probably from Hurst (1942).
The colloquial names of this species suggest an irritant effect. The leaves of the plant, which is common in damp places in Britain, have rubefacient properties (Prosser White 1934). The plant is listed as irritant (Weber 1937). The juice of the plant has irritant properties (Coulter 1904). The crushed leaves and stems are irritant (Allen 1943).
The rhizome of this species contains an acrid resin (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).
A paste made of the leaves is applied to sores by the Zulus (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).
The plant was not irritant by patch test in one patient (Möslein 1963). The fleshy root stock can be cooked and eaten as a substitute for nuts and raisins because of its almond flavour (Szczawinski and Hardy 1972).
50 species are found in temperate and subtropical Asia.
This plant which furnishes medicinal rhubarb is listed as irritant (Schwartz et al. 1957). Chrysophanic acid an irritant of Andira is derived from the plant.
This species furnishes medicinal rhubarb. Chrysophanic acid is derived from this plant and from Rumex, senna (Cassia), cascara sagrada (Rhamnus). Related compounds are derived from Andira.
The leaf stalk furnishes the vegetable, rhubarb. The leaf blade can cause dermatitis possibly from a content of oxalic acid and oxalates (Muenscher 1951, McCord 1962). Anaphylaxis from ingestion of rhubarb was reported by Delcourt (1924).
About 200 species are recognized, of cosmopolitan distribution especially in north temperate regions. Some species yield chrysophanic and oxalic acids.
Oxalic acid is a strong local irritant and caustic. The chemical causes gangrenous ulcerations. The nails turn blue, become brittle and may fall off leaving an ulcerated nail bed (Greenberg and Lester 1954).
Oxalic acid is considered to be a known allergen and is therefore removed from certain brand name cosmetics (Anon 1973).
Ingestion of the plant produces burning in the mouth and poisoning (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962). When eaten as pot-herbs or greens, the plant can produce dermatitis in "susceptible" individuals (Allen 1943, Muenscher 1951, Behl et al. 1966).
Ingestion of the plant produces burning in the mouth and poisoning (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962). When eaten as a pot-herbs or greens, the plant can produce dermatitis in "susceptible" individuals (Allen 1943, Muenscher 1951, Behl et al. 1966).
The acrid smarting juice is thought to be a cause of dermatitis in horses and sheep (Gates 1930). Subsequent references to contact dermatitis caused by this plant (Allen 1943, Schwartz et al. 1957, Gardner & Bennetts 1956, Behl et al. 1966) are probably derived from Gates (1930).
Wren (1975) notes that the root has been used in folk medicine for cleansing ulcers in affections of the mouth.
According to Wren (1975), a preparation of the root may be used as a traditional remedy for [unspecified] skin diseases and for haemorrhoids. Stuart (1979) notes that it is of value both internally and externally for skin complaints including ringworm, scabies, and urticaria.
In an investigation of "weed dermatitis" an extract of the plant produced negative patch test reactions in all of 50 patients tested (Shelmire 1939). However, both Muenscher (1951) and Stuart (1979) assert that the plant may produce dermatitis.
The plant contains oxalic acid, oxalates, chrysophanic acid, emodin, tannin and other chemicals (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962). Dermatitis attributed to the plant is said to be from a content of rumicin which can have rubefacient properties (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962). Rumicin is a name for chrysophanic acid. The effects of chrysophanic acid and its derivatives are noted under Andira.
Horses and sheep that ingest the plant in large quantities can develop dermatitis (Gates 1930, Hurst 1942, Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).
The root is used as an astringent and for dyeing from its content of tannin (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).
This species which yields chrysophanic acid has been used in herbal medicine for skin diseases (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).
Behl & Captain (1979) noted that in India, rubbing with the crushed leaves of this species or of Rumex maritimus L. (or with saliva or dilute ammonia) is recommended as a popular remedy for nettle stings (Urtica L. spp., fam. Urticaceae).
These trees found along the Amazon have slender elongated tubular branches in which stinging ants make their nest. Incautious travellers leaning against these trees are liable to be stung (Menninger 1967).