to display context-
sensitive ads on this
page. Learn how to
manage Google cookies
by visiting the
Google Technologies Centre
▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼
▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲
• Medicinal / Folk-medicinal aspects: The fleshy or succulent leaves of several species, prepared in various ways, been used in traditional medicine in many parts of the World as applications to wounds, sores, ulcers, abscesses, warts, corns, insect bites, etc. •
• Adverse effects: Irritant and possibly sensitising properties have been ascribed to a few species, but little or nothing is known about the nature of the irritants or sensitisers. The cobalt and nickel accumulating properties of certain Crassula L. species may be of local dermatological significance. •
• Veterinary aspects: •
Members of this moderately sized family of 29 genera and 1380 species are of cosmopolitan distribution, but are mostly found in southern Africa (Mabberley 2008). Most species are perennials living in dry, especially rocky, places and are xerophytic.
A number of species are found in cultivation, often as rock-garden plants, but also as house, greenhouse, and border plants. Typically, they have fleshy leaves and stems and are often found in collections of cacti and other succulents. The principal genera found in cultivation are Adromischus Lem., Aeonium Webb & Berthel., Cotyledon L., Crassula L., Kalanchoe Adans., Sedum L., and Sempervivum L. (Hunt 1968/70).
- Aeonium lindleyi Webb & Berthel.
- (syns Sempervivum lindleyi Christ, Sempervivum tortuosum Aiton var lindleyi Kuntze)
This species is endemic to the Canary Islands where is known by the common names bejequillo gomereta and higuereta. According to González de la Rosa (1976) citing earlier literature, unfortunate tourists who get the milky sap of Euphorbia canariensis (fam. Euphorbiaceae) in their eyes can neutralise the burning of the caustic sap by instilling the juice of the gomereta, that earlier literature drawing attention also to the fact that both plants are usually found growing near to each other. In another report he cited, it is noted that the juice of the higuereta has been used as a traditional remedy by the islanders for the irritation produced by the caustic juice of euphorbias. From experiments he conducted, González de la Rosa (1976) concluded that the juice of Aeonium lindleyi, floculates the euphorbia latex causing it to lose its adhesive properties thereby stopping the pain.
- Cotyledon orbiculata L.
- (syns Cotyledon ambigua Salisb., Cotyledon canaliculata Baker, Sedum decussatum Kuntze, Sedum orbiculatum Kuntze, etc.)
- Pig's Ear, Round-Leafed Navel-Wort
In the traditional medicine of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, where the plant is known locally as ipewula or imphewula, the fresh leaves and cuticle are made into a poultice and applied to wounds, scratches, sores and ulcers (Grierson & Afolayan 1999).
- Crassula alba Forsskal
- (syns Crassula abyssinica A.Rich., Crassula milleriana Burtt Davy, Crassula recurva N.E.Br., Crassula rubicunda E.Mey. ex Harv., Crassula stewartiae Burtt Davy)
This species has been found to accumulate cobalt when growing in soils rich in this element (Malaisse et al. 1979, Brooks 1998). An average content of about 1650 μg/g (ppm) has been recorded from dried plant material. The sensitising properties of cobalt and its salts are well documented (Malten et al. 1976, Cronin 1980, Fowler 1990, Uter et al. 2016).
- Crassula globularioides Britten ssp argyrophylla Toelken
- (syns Crassula argyrophylla Diels ex Schönland & Baker f., Crassula swaziensis Schönland)
Wild (1975) found 3900 μg/g (ppm) nickel in the dried roots of Crassula argyrophylla growing on serpentine soil in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), showing it to be a hyperaccumulator of this element. The sensitising properties of nickel are well documented (Malten et al. 1976, Cronin 1980, Fowler 1990, Uter et al. 2016).
- Crassula ovata Druce
- (syns Cotyledon ovata Mill., Crassula argentea Thunb., Crassula articulata Zuccagni, Crassula nitida Schönland, Crassula portulacea Lam., Toelkenia ovata P.V.Heath)
- Chinese Rubber Plant, Dollar Plant, Jade Plant
Lynne-Davies & Mitchell (1974) applied portions of the fresh leaf of Crassula argentea to the backs of 2 males for 48 hours under occlusion. Neither irritant reactions nor delayed flares occurred.
- Crassula vaginata Eckl. & Zeyh.
- (syns Crassula crassiflora K.Schum., Crassula drakensbergensis Schönland, Crassula mannii Hook.f., Crassula spectabilis Schönland, Sedum crassiflorum Kuntze)
- Yellow Crassula
This species has been found to accumulate cobalt when growing in soils rich in this element (Malaisse et al. 1979, Brooks 1998). An average content of about 1100 μg/g (ppm) has been recorded from dried plant material. The sensitising properties of cobalt and its salts are well documented (Malten et al. 1976, Cronin 1980, Fowler 1990, Uter et al. 2016).
- Kalanchoe Adans.
Mabberley (2008) noted that the genus comprises 138 species of succulent shrubs and herbs found in southern and eastern Africa, Madagascar, and in Asia. Some are widely naturalised and indeed invasive elsewhere, including in Australia and the Galapagos.
Kuligowski et al. (1992) observed a weak positive patch test reaction to the leaf of an unidentified Kalanchoe species in a patient who presented with contact allergy to a hortensia (see Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., fam. Hydrangeaceae).
- Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln.
- (syn. Kalanchoe globulifera H.Perrier var coccinea H.Perrier)
- Christmas Kalanchoe, Flaming Katy, Florist's Kalanchoe, Madagascar Widow's-Thrill
Agrup et al. (1970) included "Kalanchoë blossfeldiana" in a list of substances to which they had observed a positive patch test reaction on testing 140 patients with suspected contact allergy, but provided no further detail.
- Kalanchoe crenata Haw.
- (syns Cotyledon brasilica Vell., Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess., Kalanchoe hirta Harv., Vereia crenata Andrews)
- Lucky Leaf, Neverdie, Thick Leaf
Kalanchoe brasiliensis, known locally as saião or folha da fortuna, is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, injuries, and abscesses. A hydroethanolic extract of the leaves showed anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced acute ear oedema method and in assays involving various pro-inflammatory enzymes and mediators (Mayorga et al. 2017).
- Kalanchoe densiflora Rolfe
- (syn. Kalanchoe bequaertii De Wild.)
- Air Plant
In the traditional medicine of Bulamogi county in Uganda, the leaves from this herb are warmed and applied as a poultice in the treatment of dermatitis (Tabuti et al. 2003). Bussmann (2006) noted that the Samburu pastoralists of the Mount Nyiru area in northern Kenya apply the plant as a poultice to wounds.
- Kalanchoe integra Kuntze
- (syns Cotyledon integra Medik., Cotyledon spathulata Poir., Kalanchoe nudicaulis Buch.-Ham. ex C.B.Clarke, Kalanchoe spathulata DC., Kalanchoe yunnanensis Gagnep., etc.)
- Neverdie, Kalanchoé Spatulé
In Indian traditional medicine, the leaves of Kalanchoe spathulata are applied to wounds (Nadkarni 1976).
- Kalanchoe laciniata DC.
- (syns Cotyledon laciniata L., Kalanchoe gracilis Hance, Kalanchoe rosea C.B.Clarke, Kalanchoe schweinfurthii Penz.)
- Christmas-Tree Kalanchoe, Fig-Tree Kalanchoe
In Indian traditional medicine, the leaves, either freshly bruised or roasted over a fire, are applied as a poultice to bruises and contusions. They are also applied as a styptic to fresh cuts and abrasions; and over insect bites (Nadkarni 1976).
- Kalanchoe lanceolata Pers.
- (syns Cotyledon lanceolata Forssk., Kalanchoe diversa N.E.Br., Kalanchoe glandulosa Hochst. ex A.Rich., Kalanchoe goetzei Engl., Kalanchoe platysepala Welw. ex Britten, etc.)
- Yellow Stonecrop
[Information available but not yet included in database]
- Kalanchoe pinnata Pers.
- (syns Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb., Bryophyllum pinnatum Oken, Cotyledon pinnata Lam., etc.)
- Air Plant, Curtain Plant, Floppers, Life Plant, Mexican Love-Plant, Miracle-Leaf
According to Ainslie (1937), in Nigerian native medicine the leaves of Bryophyllum calycinum mashed and warmed, and with warm palm oil added, are applied to rheumatism swellings. In a text on Indian materia medica, Nadkarni (1976) noted that the leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata are used in the same way as those of Kalanchoe laciniata DC. (see above). He noted also that the leaves of Bryophyllum calycinum are applied to wounds, boils, and the bites of insects. In a review of medicinal plants used for skin diseases in northeastern India, Begum & Nath (2000) found reports that the ground leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata are applied to blisters. Bershtein (1972) reported on the use of the juice of Kalanchoe pinnata for the treatment of leg ulcers.
- Orostachys fimbriata A.Berger
- (syns Cotyledon fimbriata Turcz., Umbilicus fimbriatus Turcz.)
- Duncecap, Dunce's Caps
According to Stuart (1911) referring to Umbilicus fimbriatus in a text on Chinese materia medica, the sun-dried plant (which is known as Tso Yeh Ho Tsao) is used in an ointment for falling out of the eye-brows.
- Sedum L.
Some 600 species of these fleshy leaved xerophytes have been described from northern temperate regions. One species also occurs in Peru.
Nicotine and other piperidine alkaloids have been reported to occur in various Sedum species (Marion 1945, Gill et al. 1979, Stevens et al. 1992, Stevens et al. 1995, Kim et al. 1996). See also Nicotiana tabacum L., fam. Solanaceae.
- Sedum acre L.
- (syns Sedum drucei Graebn., Sedum neglectum Ten., Sedum procumbens Schrank)
- Mossy Stonecrop, Biting Stonecrop, Small Houseleek, Wallpepper, Gold Moss
Berhard Smith (1905) included this species in a listing of "simple irritants", noting that it has an acrid juice. In Western traditional medicine, the fresh herb and the expressed juice have been applied locally to old ulcers, warts, and other excrescences. When applied to the skin, the plant produces inflammation and vesication (Bulliard 1784, White 1887, Schaffner 1903b, Remington et al. 1918, Flück & Jaspersen-Schib 1976, Stuart 1979).
Sedum Acre Extract is a recognised cosmetic product ingredient [CAS RN 90106-69-7]a purported to be "skin conditioning" (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2006).
- Sedum aizoon L.
- (syns Aizopsis aizoon Grulich, Phedimus aizoon 't Hart, Sedum ellacombeanum Praeger, Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. var ellacombeanum R.T.Clausen, Sedum yantaiense Debeaux)
- Aizoon Stonecrop, Orange Stonecrop, Orpin Aizoon
The dried whole plant, known as Jing Tin San Qi (景天三七), is used in Chinese traditional medicine as a haemostat (Huang 1993).
- Sedum album L.
- (syns Oreosedum album Grulich, Sedum angulatum Mast., Sedum vermiculare Gaterau, etc.)
- White Stonecrop, Worm Grass
Berhard Smith (1905) included this species in a listing of "simple irritants", noting that it has an acrid juice.
- Sedum erythrostictum Miq.
- (syns Hylotelephium erythrostictum H.Ohba, Sedum alboroseum Baker, Sedum okuyamae Ohwi)
- Garden Orpine, Garden Stonecrop
In Chinese traditional medicine, the juice of the leaves of this plant (which is known as Ching Tien or Ba Bao (八宝) is a common domestic remedy in eruptions as well as an application to burns (Stuart 1911).
- Sedum lineare Thunb.
- Carpet Sedum, Needle Stonecrop
In Chinese traditional medicine, the plant (which is known as Fo Chia Tsao) is used as a local application in the treatment of burns and scalds (Stuart 1911).
- Sedum multicaule Wall. ex Lindl.
- (syns Sedum dolosum K.T.Fu, Sedum mekongense Praeger)
- Multi-Stem Sedum
Rokaya et al. (2010) noted that in the Humla district of western Nepal, a paste prepared from the whole plant is applied externally to cure boils and wounds especially on the head.
This species also has a local reputation as a home remedy for eye irritation caused by the milky sap from Euphorbia L. species (fam. Euphorbiaceae), being mentioned in case reports from India. A 55-year old patient who developed keratitis when the milky sap from Euphorbia royleana Boiss. splashed into his eye, first irrigated his eyes with tap water then used the juice from Sedum multicaule and human milk, but to no effect (Sofat et al. 1972). A second patient, a 36-year old male described by Sood et al. (1971), used the juice from Sedum multicaule 24 hours after getting the milky sap from Euphorbia royleana into his eyes but without initial irrigation with tap water, claimed to have experienced slight relief.
- Sedum praealtum A.DC.
- Green Cockscomb, Greater Mexican Stonecrop
[Information available but not yet included in database]
- Sedum rosea Scop.
- (syns Rhodiola rosea L., etc.)
- King's Crown, Orpin Rose, Roseroot, Rosewort, Rosenwurz
The fleshy rootstock emits a fragrance of attar-of-rose (Rosa x damascena Herrm., fam. Rosaceae) when bruised. The volatile oil responsible for the rose-like fragrance comprises α-pinene, geraniol, limonene, β-phellandrene, linalool, and other substances, but the composition has been shown to vary considerably with geographical origin. Other substances present in the roots include phenylethanoids, phenylpropenoids, and flavonoids (Panossian et al. 2010, EMA/HMPC/232100/2011).
Preparations of the plant have a long history of use in northern-European traditional medicine, including use in the treatment of certain skin conditions (Panossian et al. 2010), but no dermatological uses are recognised in the European Union by the European Medicines Agency Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC).
Sedum Rosea (Rhodiola Rosea) Root Extract is a recognised cosmetic product ingredient [CAS RN 92457-37-9]a purported to be antioxidant, astringent and "skin conditioning".
- Sedum spathulifolium Hook.
- (syns Echeveria spathulifolia De Smet ex É.Morren, Gormania anomala Britton, Sedum anomalum Britton, Sedum woodii Britton)
The Kuper Island Indians of the north-western coast of North America have used the sap from the leaves and stem as a styptic (Turner & Bell 1971).
- Sedum spectabile Boreau
- (syn. Hylotelephium spectabile H.Ohba)
- Autumn-Flowering Sedum, Butterfly Stonecrop, Ice Plant, Orpin d'Automne
Biberstein (1927) observed a delayed (48h) positive patch test reaction to this species in a 22 year old female who presented with recurrent dermatitis of the face and hands.
- Sedum telephium L.
- (syns Hylotelephium purpureum Holub, Hylotelephium telephium H.Ohba, Sedum purpureum Schult., etc.)
- Orpine, Live-Forever, Life Everlasting, Stonecrop
According to Remington et al. (1918), Sedum telephium was formerly used externally to cicatrize wounds. Flück & Jaspersen-Schib (1976) also refers to this use, adding that the fresh or withered plants are slightly rubefacient.
- Sempervivum montanum L.
- (syns Sempervivum debile Schott, Sempervivum monticola Lamotte)
- Hen and Chickens, Mountain Houseleek
Pammel (1911) noted that this species has irritant properties, but provided no further detail; McCord (1962) similarly noted that the leaves can cause dermatitis but provided no further detail.
- Sempervivum tectorum L.
- (syns Sempervivum alpinum Griseb. & Schenk, Sempervivum andreanum Wale, Sempervivum glaucum Ten., etc.)
- Common Houseleek, St Patrick's Cabbage, Hen and Chickens, Grande Joubarbe, Dachhauswurz
This species is planted on cottage roofs to keep slates in position. The plant may hybridise with Sempervivum montanum L. (above).
According to Wren (1975), the bruised fresh leaves have been applied as a poultice in inflammatory conditions of the skin such as burns and stings. Wren (1975) also notes that the juice is said to cure warts and corns.
- Agrup G, Dahlquist I, Fregert S, Rorsman H (1970) Value of history and testing in suspected contact dermatitis. Archives of Dermatology 101(2): 212-215 [doi] [url] [pmid]
- Ainslie JR (1937) A List of Plants used in Native Medicine in Nigeria. Institute Paper No. 7: Imperial Forestry Institute, University of Oxford [WorldCat]
- Begum D, Nath SC (2000) Ethnobotanical review of medicinal plants used for skin diseases and related problems in Northeastern India. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants 7(3): 55-93 [doi] [url] [url-2]
- Bernhard Smith A (1905) Poisonous Plants of all Countries. With the active, chemical principles which they contain; and the toxic symptoms produced by each group. Bristol: John Wright & Co. [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
- Bershtein EI (1972) Primenenie soka kalankhoe pri lechenii bol'nykh s troficheskimi iazvami goleni. [Use of Kalanchoë pinnata Lam. juice in the treatment of patients with trophic crural ulcers]. Vestnik Khirurgii Imeni I. I. Grekova 107(3): 116-118
- Biberstein H (1927) Überempfindlichkeit gegen Pflanzen (Sedum, Tradeskantia, Campanula, Meerzwiebel, Myrthe, Alpenveilchen, Buntnessel). [Hypersensitivity to plants (sedum, tradescantia, campanula, squill, myrtle, cyclamen, coleus)]. Zentralblatt für Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten 22(1/2): 19
- Brooks RR (1998) Geobotany and hyperaccumulators. In: Brooks RR (Ed.) Plants that Hyperaccumulate Heavy Metals: Their role in phytoremediation, microbiology, archaeology, mineral exploration and phytomining, pp. 55-94. Wallingford: CAB International [WorldCat]
- Bulliard (1784) Histoire des Plantes Vénéneuses et Suspectes de la France. Paris: de l'Imprimerie de Monsieur [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
- Bussmann RW (2006) Ethnobotany of the Samburu of Mt. Nyiru, South Turkana, Kenya. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2: 35 [online article] https://ethnobiomed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-4269-2-35; accessed January 2019 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
- Cronin E (1980) Contact Dermatitis. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone [WorldCat]
- Flück H, Jaspersen-Schib R (1976) Medicinal Plants and their Uses. Medicinal plants, simply described and illustrated with notes on their constituents, actions and uses, their collection, cultivation and preparations. London: Foulsham [WorldCat]
- Fowler JF (1990) Allergic contact dermatitis to metals. American Journal of Contact Dermatitis 1(4): 212-223 [url]
- Gill S, Raszeja W, Szynkiewicz G (1979) Occurrence of nicotine in some species of the genus Sedum. Farmacja Polska 35: 151-153
- González de la Rosa M (1976) Un antídoto natural para la causticación ocular por látex de euforbias. [A natural antidote for ocular caustication by latex of Euphorbia]. Archivos de la Sociedad Canaria de Oftalmología (1): 84-88 [url] [url-2]
- Grierson DS, Afolayan AJ (1999) An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of wounds in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 67(3): 327-332 [doi] [url] [pmid]
- Huang KC (1993) The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press [WorldCat]
- Kim JH, 'T Hart H, Stevens JF (1996) Alkaloids of some Asian Sedum species. Phytochemistry 41(5): 1319-1324 [doi] [url]
- Kuligowski ME, Chang A, Leemreize JHM (1992) Allergic contact hand dermatitis from hydrangea: report of a 10th case. Contact Dermatitis 26(4): 269-270 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
- Lynne-Davies G, Mitchell JC (1974) Patch tests for irritancy – some common house plants. Contact Dermatitis Newsletter (16): 501-502 [url]
- Mabberley DJ (2008) Mabberley's Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses, 3rd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [WorldCat]
- Malaisse F, Grégoire J, Morrison RS, Brooks RR, Reeves RD (1979) Copper and cobalt in vegetation of Fungurume, Shaba Province, Zaïre. Oikos 33(3): 472-478 [doi] [url]
- Malten KE, Nater JP, van Ketel WG (1976) Patch Testing Guidelines. Nijmegen: Dekker & van de Vegt [WorldCat]
- Marion L (1945) The alkaloids of Sedum acre L. Canadian Journal of Research 23b(5): 165-166 [doi] [url] [url-2]
- Mayorga O, Florencio J, Santos B, do Amaral Corrêa José O, Sousa O, Alves Maria S (2017) Topical anti-inflammatory activity of the hydroethanolic extract from Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess. (Crassulaceae) leaves. Planta Medica International Open 4(S 01): Mo-PO-129 [doi] [url] [url-2]
- McCord CP (1962) The occupational toxicity of cultivated flowers. Industrial Medicine and Surgery 31(8): 365-368
- Nadkarni AK (1976) Dr. K. M. Nadkarni's Indian Materia Medica. With ayurvedic, unani-tibbi, siddha, allopathic, homeopathic, naturopathic & home remedies, appendices & indexes, Revised enlarged and reprinted 3rd edn, Vols 1 & 2. Bombay: Popular Prakashan [WorldCat] [url]
- Panossian A, Wikman G, Sarris J (2010) Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Phytomedicine 17(7): 481-493 [doi] [url] [pmid]
- Remington JP, Wood HC, Sadtler SP, LaWall CH, Kraemer H, Anderson JF (Eds) (1918) The Dispensatory of the United States of America. 20th edn. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
- Rokaya MB, Münzbergová Z, Timsina B (2010) Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants from the Humla district of western Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 130(3): 485-504 [doi] [url] [pmid]
- Schaffner JH (1903b) Poisonous and other injurious plants of Ohio. The Ohio Naturalist 4(2): 32-36 [doi] [url] [url-2]
- Sofat BK, Sood GC, Chandel RD, Mehrota SK (1972) Euphorbia royleana latex keratitis. American Journal of Ophthalmology 74(4): 634-637 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
- Sood GC, Sofat BK, Chandel RD (1971) Injury to the eye by the sap of Euphorbia royleana. British Journal of Ophthalmology 55(12): 856-857 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
- Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products (2006) Cosmetic ingredients other than perfume and aromatic raw materials (Commission Decision 2006/257/EC). Official Journal of the European Union 49(L 97): 1-528 [url] [url-2]
- Stevens JF, 'T Hart H, Hendriks H, Malingré TM (1992) Alkaloids of some European and Macaronesian Sedoideae and Sempervivoideae (Crassulaceae). Phytochemistry 31(11): 3917-3924 [doi] [url]
- Stevens JF, 'T Hart H, Van Ham RCHJ, Elema ET, Van Den Ent MMVX, Wildeboer M, Zwaving JH (1995) Distribution of alkaloids and tannins in the Crassulaceae. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 23(2): 157-165 [doi] [url]
- Stuart GA (1911) Chinese Materia Medica. Vegetable Kingdom. Extensively revised from Dr. F. Porter Smith's work. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press [doi] [WorldCat] [url]
- Stuart M (1979) Reference section. In: Stuart M (Ed.) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism, pp. 141-283. London: Orbis Publishing [WorldCat]
- Tabuti JRS, Lye KA, Dhillion SS (2003) Traditional herbal drugs of Bulamogi, Uganda: plants, use and administration. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 88(1): 19-44 [doi] [url] [pmid]
- Turner NC, Bell MAM (1971) The ethnobotany of the Coast Salish Indians of Vancouver Island. Economic Botany 25(1): 63-104 [doi] [url] [url-2]
- Uter W, Larese Filon F, Rui F, Balato A, Wilkinson M, Kręcisz B, Chomiczewska-Skora D, Kieć-Świerczyńska M, Schuttelaar M-LA, Frosch PJ, Bircher AJ (2016) ESSCA results with nickel, cobalt and chromium, 2009–2012. Contact Dermatitis 75(2): 117-121 [doi] [url] [url-2] [pmid]
- White JC (1887) Dermatitis Venenata: an account of the action of external irritants upon the skin. Boston: Cupples and Hurd [doi] [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
- Wild H (1975) The uptake of heavy metals by some succulent species of Rhodesian serpentines. Excelsa – Journal of the Aloe, Cactus and Succulent Society of Rhodesia (5): 17-21
- Wren RC (1975) Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. (Re-edited and enlarged by Wren RW). Bradford, Devon: Health Science Press [doi] [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
- [ + 2 further references not yet included in database]