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53 species in four genera are found in temperate Eurasia and North America.

[Summary yet to be added]


20 species are found in north palaeotemperate regions.

Paris quadrifolia L.

This species is irritant (Pammel 1911).

Trillium erectum L.
Beth Root, Birthroot, Lamb's Quarters, Squawroot, Stinking Benjamin

In folk medicine, the powdered roots and rhizomes of this plant have been used in poultices applied to sores and ulcers (Wren 1975, Stuart 1979).


  • Pammel LH (1911) A Manual of Poisonous Plants. Chiefly of North America, with Brief Notes on Economic and Medicinal Plants, and Numerous Illustrations. Cedar Rapids, IA: Torch Press [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Stuart M (1979) Reference section. In: Stuart M (Ed.) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism, pp. 141-283. London: Orbis Publishing [WorldCat] [url]
  • Wren RC (1975) Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. (Re-edited and enlarged by Wren RW). Bradford, Devon: Health Science Press [WorldCat] [doi] [url] [url-2]

Richard J. Schmidt

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